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广东快乐十分中奖方式:  青島棧橋英語介紹

广东快乐十分钟概率 www.gzlgt.icu 青島希尼爾翻譯咨詢有限公司(广东快乐十分钟概率 www.gzlgt.icu)整理發布  2015-10-11

  

青島希尼爾翻譯公司(广东快乐十分钟概率 www.gzlgt.icu)2015年10月10日了解到:青島棧橋的介紹

The fast-paced life has turned us into machines, doing overloading operations so everyone need a rest and go to travel with relatives or friends. I think QingDao is the best choice.
  QingDao is reputed for its elegant mountains, clean air, blue water, white beach and green trees. Are you feeling the wind from the sea?.That is like a lively girl, she crawl up to kiss your feet when you are lost in admiration of the Beautiful scence, when you sip a mouth of it ,it tastes a little salty.
  As known as Seashore Pier, Southern Sea Pier or Big Marina, the Jutting Pier is a symbolic structure of Qingdao,which was first built in 1892. when Zhang Gaoyuan, Commander of Dengzhou, stationed troops in Qingdao, in order to facilitate the transportation of military supplies and anchor the warships of the Northern Navy, a 344meter long simple pier wasthen built on the southwest coast. The dyke connecting the cosdt was built by laying stones,and the fore part of the pier was built of steel paved with wood. The building materials were remainders of Lvshun Boatyard, Northern Navy. In 1894 when Li Hongzhang made his second inspection tour to Qingdao, he gave a high praise for the Jutting Pier and called it an Iron Pier in his memorial to the throne. Hereafter, the Jutting Pier was also called Navy Pier, Seashore Pier and Navy Iron Pier. In 1900, the pier was destroyed by a typhoon, in 1901 when Germany occupied Qingdao,the Jutting Pier was rebuilt and used for freight transporting. When the Dagang Port was completed, the Jutting Pier was opened to the public. In 1923, a park was developed around the Northernend of the pier. From September 1931 to April 1933, the pier was rebuilt of steel concrete, extended to 440 meters long and 8meters wide. A semicircular seawall as built at the end of the bridge.
  Now, the Jutting Pier has become a famous attraction and symbolic structure of Qingdao. After the founding of People Republic of China, Qingdao Municipal Government has paid much attention to the maintenance and protection of the Jutting Pier. In the 1950s, the Water Returning Pavilion was once called Sino USSR Friendship Pavilion. In the daytime, the Pier is frequented by stream of visitors, who are leaning on the railing and overlooking the charming sea. When the night falls, the colorfully decorated lights are turned on, glorifying the bridge.
  At the Jutting Pier, we can enjoy various attractive sights such as Water Returning at the Pavilion, Listening to the Tide at the Pavilion. Extension of Rainbow and Moon Might at the Pier, which Were reputed as one of the 10 Sights of Qingdao as well as the 24 Top Sights of Qingdao City in the 1930s. Numerous scholars and men of letters have left behind a lot of poems and lines in Praise of the pier. It is a famous seashore attraction frequented by visitors. At the peak season, the daily tourist arrivals are above 200 000. It is a must for the VIPs, important officials and famous celebrities when they visit Qingdao.
  Follow me please. Let us climb the stairs and overlook far into distance. A good place for sightiseeing. You can take photos here.

青島棧橋有著一百多年的歷史。1891年,直隸總督兼北洋大臣李鴻章在山東巡撫張曜的陪同下來當時的膠澳視察,回京后果斷向清廷提議應在青島口一帶設防。同年6月14日,內閣明發上諭:“擬在膠州、煙臺各??諤碇諤?,著照所請?!蓖幣蟮侵菡蜃鼙妹龐傻侵?今蓬萊)移居青島口。隨后登州鎮總兵章高元在青島口建總兵衙門,是為青島建置的由來。

青島棧橋始建于清光緒十八年(1892年),1892年清政府派登州總兵章高元帶四營官兵駐扎青島,為便于部隊軍需物資的運輸,建了兩座碼頭,其中一座就是棧橋,1893年竣工,長200米,寬10米,石基灰面,橋面兩側裝有鐵護欄。
光緒二十年(1894年5月29日),直隸總督李鴻章奏折:“登州總兵章高元,承辦各臺基址已具,道員龔照玙又于青島前建設大鐵碼頭一座,現擬于鐵碼頭后建造水雷營,緊扼口門現辦煙臺、膠州兩??詵牢?,事同一律,宜各設水雷兵營,各制下雷輪船一艘?!盵5]
從李鴻章的奏折可知,在青島的軍事防御設施不是孤立進行的,而是晚清中國北方海防系統的一部分。而在膠澳建造的每座建筑也具有明確的目的性,大鐵碼頭就是專供“下雷輪船”裝卸水雷、上煤運械而建造的海軍專用碼頭。棧橋是青島最早的軍事專用人工碼頭建筑[5] 。該碼頭原稱謂很多,有海軍棧橋、前海棧橋、南海棧橋、李鴻章棧橋、大碼頭等。另一座位于總兵衙門前方的“衙門橋”長100米,寬6米,亦稱“蝸牛橋”。這兩座碼頭都是中國工程師自己設計的,是青島最早的碼頭。[6]
青島棧橋是當時惟一的一條海上“軍火供給線”,也就是說,誰控制了棧橋,誰就控制了膠州灣。1897年,德軍以演習為名,從棧橋所在的青島灣登陸,武力占領了青島,棧橋成為德軍侵占青島的見證。德國侵占青島后,清政府被迫與德國簽訂《膠澳租借條約》后,當局開始進行新的城市規劃,許多物資由海上運來。為了方便運輸,德國人又對棧橋進行了改造,在橋面上鋪設軌道,上面可以跑轱轆馬(專門裝貨物的車子)。
1901年5月,將原橋北端改為石基,水泥鋪面,鐵護欄改為鐵索護欄,在南端鋼制橋架上鋪設木板,并建輕便鐵軌,將橋身延長到350米,仍為軍用碼頭。1901年10月7日,小港碼頭建成,運輸物資均由小港碼頭承擔,棧橋的運輸功能也慢慢減弱。1904年大港第一碼頭建成后,棧橋逐漸失去它作為碼頭的歷史使命,開始向游人開放。1905年前后,商貨運輸移至青島大港,棧橋遂成為船舶檢疫、引水專用碼頭。
第一次世界大戰期間,1914年8月27日,日本第二艦隊到達青島海域,封鎖了青島海面。日軍從陸路和水路進攻青島。當時水路方面是從嶗山灣完成登陸,不過最終占領青島后,日軍也效仿德軍在棧橋上舉行了閱兵儀式以此證明其對青島享有“充分主權”。
1922年12月,青島被中國北洋政府收回后,中國水兵在此閱兵,以顯示中國主權的收回。
1931年9月,青島市政當局出25.8萬元,由德國信利洋行承包擴建,橋身加長到440米。將原橋的鋼木結構部分改建為鋼筋混凝土,34排樁通透結構,橋面鋪以水泥,同時將橋面高度提高了0.5米。在棧橋北端沿海建了棧橋公園,種植樹木花卉。橋南端增建了箭頭型的防浪堤,并在防浪堤上修建了具有民族風格的回瀾閣。1933年4月,整個工程竣工。從此,棧橋成為青島的重要標志性建筑物和著名風景游覽點[7-8] 。
1937年7月7日,日本制造盧溝橋事變,全面侵華戰爭開始。1938年1月10日,大批日軍從沙子口登陸再次占領青島,次日一撥日軍又開始從棧橋登陸 。一個時期,棧橋作為軍用碼頭,不準中國人進入。
新中國成立后,人民政府多次撥款對棧橋進行維修,1985年青島市又對棧橋進行了大規模的全面整修,將橋南端通透部分拆除重建,由34排樁改為16排樁,并新建眺望臺1座,同時將橋入口處的6根擋車石柱拆除,兩側圍

以鐵索護欄,12對歐式橋燈相峙而立,外鋪花崗巖石臺階。1998年底至1999年6月,市政府再次撥款對棧橋進行了大規模整修,橋身按抗風浪50年一遇標準、回瀾閣基礎按百年一遇標準加固。棧橋北段拆除重建,側墻采用漿砌蘑菇石鑲面,整個橋面用機刨花崗巖板鋪裝。此次維修既達到防風浪、防腐蝕,保持原有的風韻的要求,又與兩側護岸設施相匹配,增加了美觀效果[7] 。
2013年5月26日下午,青島遭暴雨襲擊,全市平均降水量26毫米。5月27日清晨青島棧橋中段東側出現了一處30多米長的坍塌[9-11] 。2013年11月2日,山東省青島棧橋的橋身部分實現合龍[12] 。2014年4月25日,經過11個月的加固維修,棧橋重新運行開放[13] 。
經過數次重修和改建,現橋身長401.45米,其中引橋長236.1米,孔橋149.7米,回瀾閣處三角形橋頭長15.65米。棧橋南端的雙層飛檐八角亭閣——“回瀾閣”,閣頂覆以黃色琉璃瓦,周圍有24根圓形亭柱,閣占地151平方米,總建筑面340平方米,閣內為兩層圓環形亭堂,中央有34級螺旋式階梯,登樓遠眺,前海景色盡收眼底,即為青島十景之一“飛閣回瀾”。
青島棧橋是青島歷史的見證,現為青島市重點的文物?;そㄖ?。前海棧橋是青島的象征。游人漫步于棧橋海濱,可見青島外形如彎月,棧橋似長虹臥波,回瀾閣熠熠生輝。所謂“長虹遠引”、“飛閣回瀾”所指即此。遠處,小青島如螺,島上樹影婆娑、綠蔭噥噥,一座白燈塔亭亭玉立。灣東側和北側,紅瓦綠樹交相輝映,各式建筑參差錯落的分布在海岬坡地之上。灣西側的現代化高層建筑緊靠海岸拔地而起,壯麗恢宏。沿岸的防波堤由花崗巖壘砌,高出水面10余米。漲潮時,驚濤拍岸,激起簇簇雪白浪花,引來無數游人觀看;潮退后,赭色巖礁和金色沙灘露出水面,海灘上滿是趕海拾貝的游人[3] 。

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